To be able to visit or live in the U.S, many residents of different countries need visas. Visas are stamps in your passport that give you the right to travel to various countries. A U.S visa allows you to make plans to visit or live in the U.S.
A U.S visa does not grant you entry into the U.S. This is determined by the officials at any U.S point of entry who can detain and return you if they have a reason. Common reasons include security concerns or other suspicions. However, if you meet all the requirements and you do not pose any threats to the U.S, its residents, and visitors, then you will be allowed to enter the U.S if you have a visa.
There are various U.S visa types, but the two major groups are:
- U.S nonimmigrant visas
- U.S immigrant visas
This article will go through the immigrant visa USA, what these visas are and various types of visas.
What is an Immigrant Visa?
Immigrant visas give its holders the right to stay in the U.S permanently. Whereas with a U.S nonimmigrant visa, the person is required to return to their home country when their visa expires, an immigrant visa does not expire. It allows you to live, work, and study in the U.S or engage in any activity you like.
Once you get the immigrant visa, you do not need to renew it or extend it. It is valid permanently unless you engage in an illegal activity in the U.S to have your immigrant visa revoked. The immigrant visa does not constrain you to stay in the U.S, but you can travel in and out of the U.S anytime you want and not have your visa in danger of being revoked or cancelled as long as you have a valid Re-entry Permit.
Additionally, if you live in the U.S for a specified period of time without any violations, you can also apply for a citizenship and if approved, you will become a U.S citizen.
What are the U.S Immigrant Visa Types?
Just like the U.S nonimmigrant visas, there are also several U.S immigrant visa types. They can take on different categories depending on how you get the permanent visa. There are two major categories of immigrant visas:
- Immediate Relative and Family Sponsored
- Employer Sponsored
Immediate Relative and Family Sponsored Visas
The Immediate Relative visas and Family immigrant visas means that you are joining your close family who live in the U.S permanently. This can be your parents, fiancé, or spouse. If you have family in the U.S, or you become engaged or married to a U.S citizen, then you are eligible for this category of immigrant visas.
The table below provides the names of the Immediate Relative and Family Sponsored visas and short descriptions of each.
The first category is the marriage visas. These visas are given to those who are legally married to a citizen of the U.S. Merely living together does not count as being married, so you will have to prove marriage by documents.
There are two types of spouse visas:
- Conditional Resident (CR-1) Visa – means that you have just been married and for 2 years you will maintain conditional status. This is to prevent marriages from happening only for obtaining permanent residence in the U.S.
- Immediate Relative (IR-1) Visa – after you have been married for 2 years, you will gain permanent status without the conditions of the CR-1 visa.
The K-1 visa is given to a person engaged to a U.S citizen to go to the U.S for 90 days. During those 90 days, the couple is expected to be married so as to start filing for the petition to get a spouse visa.
The K-2 visa is given to unmarried children under 21 years old of K-1 visa holders, so the U.S citizen’s fiancé(e).
This visa has been created to shorten the time that the married couple is away from each other while one of them is waiting for their petition to be approved.
When a foreign citizen and a U.S citizen are married, they file the petition to get a spouse visa. While this petition is being processed, the spouse can obtain a K-3 visa so as to be able to live in the U.S.
This visa is intended to be given to unmarried children under 21 years old of K-3 visa holders, so the children of the spouse of a U.S citizen.
This group of visas is intended to be used by U.S citizens who adopt children from countries other than the U.S. The children can then get one of the four visas.
- IH-3 visa is for children who are adopted from a country on the Hague Convention. The children who get the IH-3 visa are allowed to enter the U.S and then get U.S citizenship. The citizenship is given automatically only to children who are under 18 years old when they enter the U.S for the first time.
- IH-4 visa is the same as the IH-3 visa, but the children who enter the U.S do not get a U.S citizenship immediately, but after the adoption is complete.
- IR-3 visa is given to children after the adoption procedure has been completed. The child must be from a country which does not require re-adoption when the child enters the U.S. The children who are under 18 years old get automatic citizenship when they first enter the U.S.
- IR-4 visa is for children whose adoption will be completed after they enter the U.S. Initially, the parents will become legal guardians of the child and then will file for the adoption process once the child is inside the U.S.
This group of visas is for family members of U.S citizens or the people that they will marry.
- IR-2 visa is for the unmarried children under 21 years old of IR-1 visa holders, so the spouse of a U.S citizen.
- CR-2 visa is for the unmarried children under 21 years old of CR-1 visa holders, so the spouse a U.S citizen. The couple must be married less than 2 years for this visa to apply.
- IR-5 visa is for the parents of a U.S citizen who is older than 21 years old.
- F-1 visa has a cap of 23,400 visas given to unmarried sons and daughters of U.S citizens and their minor children
- F-3 visa has a cap of 23,400 visas for married sons and daughters of U.S citizens as well as their minor children and spouses
- F-4 visa has a cap of 65,000 visas and is for siblings of U.S citizens, their minor children, and spouses. For this visa to apply, the U.S citizen must be at least 21 years old.
Employment Sponsored Visa
The employer sponsored visas are immigrant visas which allow its holders to work permanently in the U.S. The U.S government limits the number of employment based visas that they give to around 140,000 per fiscal year. The table below shows the different types of employment based visas.
The First Priority Workers are those who get the EB1 visa and they can be in three groups:
- Outstanding professors and researchers who are recognized internationally
- Persons with extraordinary abilities in arts, sciences, business, education, or athletics
- Multinational managers of executive who have worked overseas for at least one out of the past three years for a U.S branch, subsidiary, or parent company.
- Professionals holding an advanced degree, who either have a Bachelor’s Degree and five years of work experience in that profession, or have completed a higher education degree beyond their Bachelor’s Degree.
- Persons with exceptional abilities in arts, sciences, or business.
The third priority workers include these groups:
- Skilled workers who have at least two years of experience or training in that particular profession and who are not seasonal or temporary
- Professional workers who need at least a Bachelor’s Degree or a U.S equivalent to work in their profession
- Unskilled workers who do not need at least two years of experience or training to work in a particular position.
- Religious workers (SD visa and SR visa)
- Broadcasters in the U.S
- Current or Former employees of the U.S government
- Iraqi employees of the U.S government (SQ visa)
- Afghan employees of the U.S government (SQ visa)
- Iraqi and Afghan Interpreters or Translators (SI visa)
- Certain Foreign Medical Graduates
- Certain family members of International Organization Employees (spouses and unmarried children), etc.
The last group of the employment based visas is targeted at investors, who invest:
- At least $1,000,000
- $500,000 in a high unemployment or rural area in the U.S
Based on this, there are four types of investor immigrant visas:
- C-5 visa for investors who create jobs outside of target areas
- T-5 visas for investors who create jobs in targeted rural or high unemployment areas
- R-5 visa for investors who participate in an Investor Pilot Program not in a target area
- I-5 visa for investors who participate in an Investor Pilot Program in a targeted area
Merit Based Immigration
The current U.S administration has continuously been opposed to the current immigration laws and regulations.
Merit-based immigration means that the criteria to get a U.S Green Card would be based on certain achievements that they have rather than by mere chance. This could include demographics, education, job prospects and so on.
In the U.S, the proposed bill is being called the Reforming American Immigration for Strong Employment Act or the RAISE Act. The RAISE Act point system will assign each applicant a certain number of points based on their qualifications.