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Complete guide to becoming a citizen of Slovakia, the criteria, and FAQs

Slovakia is a country that knows how to impress the people who visit it. It wouldn’t be a surprise if you considered living, working, or studying in one of the most beautiful European countries. Obtaining a visa and residence may be easy, but becoming a citizen of Slovakia is more complicated. There are certain conditions applicants need to meet to be eligible for Slovak citizenship.

How to Get Slovak Citizenship?

Slovak citizenship can be acquired in the following ways:

  • By birth.
  • By descent. 
  • By naturalization.

Slovakia Citizenship by Birth

Children can acquire Slovak citizenship by birth if:

  • One of the parents is a Slovak citizen.
  • The child is born in the territory of the Slovak Republic, and the parents are stateless.
  • The child is born in the territory of the Slovak Republic, and the parents are foreign nationals.
  • The child has not acquired the citizenship of any foreign national parents by birth.

If a child acquires Slovak citizenship by birth based on the fact that one of his parents is a citizen of Slovakia and the other parent is a foreigner, the child retains the Slovak citizenship even if it is proven that the parent (Slovak citizen) is not the parent of the child.

Slovakia Citizenship by Descent

To acquire Slovak citizenship by descent, applicants need to fulfill the following conditions:

  • At least one of the ancestors (parent, grandparent, or great-grandparent) needs to be a citizen of Slovakia.
  • Parents must have been born before 1990.
  • Parents must have Slovak citizenship at the time of the applicant’s birth.

Additionally, with recent reforms to the citizenship law, those who do not qualify for the citizenship by descent program due to generational limitations can apply for Slovak Living Abroad (SLA) certificate. This certificate allows its holder to live in Slovakia and eventually apply for citizenship if they can prove they have contributed to the country or have lived continuously for at least three years in Slovakia before receiving their SLA. 

Slovakia Citizenship by Naturalization

To be eligible for Slovak citizenship by naturalization, the applicants need to meet the following conditions:

  • The applicant must have uninterrupted permanent residence in Slovakia for at least eight years.
  • The applicant must undergo a probity check according to the Act on Citizenship of the Slovak Republic.
  • The applicant must prove language proficiency in the Slovak language.
  • The applicant must prove they have sufficient knowledge about the Slovak Republic.

To acquire citizenship via naturalization, the applicant must submit an application to the proper authorities and have their application reviewed and approved— only then are they considered citizens of the Slovak Republic. 

How To Apply for Slovak Citizenship by Naturalization?

The application process for Slovak citizenship by naturalization includes the following steps: 

  1. Prepare your documents.  You need to prepare several documents for your citizenship application, including your ID, residence permit, birth certificate, application for citizenship, etc. Make sure you get your documents ready in time for submission. 
  2. Submit them at the appropriate office. You can submit your documents to the following offices for citizenship applications: 
    1. The District Authority office according to your current or last place of residence in Slovakia. 
    2. The Bratislava District Authority if you have never lived in Slovakia before. 
    3. A diplomatic mission or consulate office representing Slovakia abroad.
  3. Wait for a response. After submitting your citizenship application, it will take 24 months to finish processing. Then, you will receive a notice on your application. 
  4. Apply for your citizenship certificate. If your application is successful, you must submit another application to receive your citizenship certificate. You can submit your application at the same office you submitted your citizenship application— there is an administrative fee of €10
  5. Take the citizenship oath. After you apply for your citizenship certificate, you’ll also be required to state the Slovakia citizenship oath finalizing your new nationality. 

Documents Required for Slovak Citizenship Application 

To apply for Slovak citizenship, you must submit the following documents:

  1. Slovak citizenship application form. Fill in and sign the application form and submit it together with the required documents.
  • Brief Curriculum Vitae (CV). Signed by the applicant.
  • Identification Document ID.
  • Birth certificate. 
  • Document proving your marital status. 
    • Marriage certificate
    • A divorce certificate, or a death certificate of a deceased spouse (if the applicant is married, divorced, or widowed) 
  • Documents proving your residence permit in Slovakia or documents that confirm the last permanent residence in the territory of Slovakia.
  • Proof of clear criminal record. Documents not older than six months (extract from the Criminal Registry)
  • Certificate of release from state bond of the former Czechoslovak Republic, a naturalization certificate, or a confirmation of gaining foreign citizenship if the applicant is a former citizen.
  • Certificate of a Slovak National Living Abroad. (if applicable)
  • The Applicant´s Questionnaire. Applicants who are at least 14 years old should complete the questionnaire for Slovak citizenship. 

Please note that you may be required to submit additional documents depending on your situation. 

Document Guidelines

Keep in mind that the documents you submit for your Slovakia citizenship application must meet a few requirements. Firstly, all the documents you submit for your citizenship application must be in Slovak. If this is not possible, you must attach a translation to the original document. Please note that translations must be completed by certified translators from the approved  List of Experts, Interpreters, and Translators registered with the Ministry of Justice of the Slovak Republic, which you can find here

Secondly, your documents must be authenticated by an apostille stamp or via superlegalization. The latter is required for documents issued by a country that has not signed the Apostille Agreement and is a more complicated process— you may require legal help in this regard. 

Slovakia Citizenship Test

While there is no official written citizenship test, you need to show proof of your language skills and sit for an interview when you submit your application. The Chief Executive of the District Authority will appoint a three-member commission to conduct the language check.  

During this interview, you will be asked questions in the Slovak language regarding your personal data, close people, and general questions related to the history, geography, as well as social and political development of the Slovak Republic. You will also be required to read a random newspaper article with at least 500 words aloud in the Slovak language and write a summary of the article within 30 minutes.

Other Ways to Obtain Citizenship in Slovakia

Besides naturalization and descent, there are other ways to obtain Slovak citizenship: 

  • Citizenship by adoption.
  • Citizenship by marriage. 
  • Citizenship by investment. 

Citizenship by Adoption

Children can become citizens of Slovakia by adoption if at least one of the adoptive parents is a citizen of the Slovak Republic, regardless of the child’s nationality. 

Citizenship by Marriage

Foreigners who want to marry a Slovak citizen must go through a thorough process before their wedding ceremony according to the Slovak rules of marriage. After the marriage has been registered with the Special Registry Office, the spouse of the Slovak citizen can apply for permanent residence for five years in Slovakia— the eight-year residence requirement is reduced in cases of citizenship by marriage. 

Category Fee
Slovak citizen with a foreign national 70
Marriage between foreign nationals 200
None of the fiancés has a permanent residence permit in the Slovak Republic €200
Application for entry of a birth, marriage, or decease occurred abroad in the Special Registry 10

Citizenship by Investment

Slovakia does not have citizenship by investment program, however, Immigration Laws state that significant foreign investors can apply for a temporary or permanent residence (1-2 years) in Slovakia. If you’re one of these investors, you can acquire Slovak citizenship only after eight years of living in the Slovak Republic.

What if My Application for Citizenship Is Rejected?

If your application for Slovak citizenship is rejected, you can apply again two years later. You can try to appeal the decision, but in this case, you’re highly advised to consult with a legal representative. 

Slovakia Citizenship Fees

Please keep in mind the following fees when you apply for Slovakia citizenship:

Category Fee
Slovak citizenship for applicants above the age of 18 €700
Children up to 15 years old €100
Children from 15-18 years old €150
Slovak citizenship for former Slovak or Czechoslovak citizens and people who opt to revert to their former citizenship in accordance with the international law  €20
Slovak citizenship to Czech citizens born after January 1, 1993,  €20
Slovak citizenship for individuals whose parent was a Czechoslovak citizen at the time of his/her birth €20
Slovak citizenship to an individual who has been issued a valid Certificate of a Slovak Living Abroad  €40
Proceedings to issue a Slovak citizenship certificate
Proceedings to issue a confirmation of Slovak citizenship of a deceased person or to an individual who asked for the confirmation retrospectively to an earlier date prior to the date of application submission  €10
Application for issuance of an ID card  €4.50

Who is exempt from paying the fee?

  • Foreigners who have been granted asylum in Slovakia.
  • Displaced people from Chernobyl and Ukraine.

Can I Lose My Slovak Citizenship?

Slovakia does not deprive anyone of Slovak citizenship against their will— you can lose Slovak citizenship by “release from the state bond” upon your own request if one of the following occurs:

  • You have acquired citizenship of another state.
  • You have been promised to be granted citizenship of another state.
  • You can presume that you will be granted citizenship of another state after renouncing their Slovak citizenship.

Does Slovakia Allow Dual Citizenship?

Slovakia permits dual citizenship if:

  • You have acquired another foreign citizenship at birth.
  • You have obtained Slovak citizenship through marriage.
  • You already held another foreign citizenship before obtaining Slovak citizenship.

However, citizens of Slovakia will automatically lose their Slovak citizenship if they acquire foreign citizenship. If you acquire foreign citizenship, you are obliged to notify the District Office. If you do not notify the District Office, you may face a fine of up to €3320.

Benefits of Slovakia Citizenship

Becoming a citizen of Slovakia grants you many benefits:

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