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Information about countries in Europe

Europe is the world’s second-smallest continent, right after Australia and Oceania. Stretched in the Northern and Eastern hemispheres, it covers a total of 6.8% of Earth’s land area. Europe’s largest country by mass and population is Russia, while the smallest and least populous country is the Vatican. 

Since ancient history, Europe has been a centric figure in the history of human civilization. Home to Ancient Greek and the Roman Empire, it set the foundation for today’s democracy and Western civilization. It’s most known for its diverse culture and heavy influence in world history and politics. 

Quick Facts About Europe

Here is an overview of Europe: 

Area10,180,000 km²
Number of countries46 (plus transcontinental countries)
Biggest country (by area)Russia
Population (2021)747.8 million 
Most populated countryRussia
Number of languages spokenOver 200 languages across the continent 
Largest peninsulaThe Scandinavian Peninsula 
Highest mountain Mount Elbrus in Russia
Longest riverVolga River in Russia

How Many Countries Are There in Europe?

There are currently 46 countries in Europe:

CountryCapitalAreaPopulation (2021)
AlbaniaTirana28,748 km²2.8 million
AndorraAndorra la Vella468 km²77,335
AustriaVienna83,858 km²9 million
BelarusMinsk207,560 km²9.4 million
BelgiumBrussels30,528 km²11.6 million
Bosnia and HerzegovinaSarajevo51,129 km²3.2 million
BulgariaSofia110,910 km²6.8 million
CroatiaZagreb56,542 km²4 million
CyprusNicosia9,251 km²1.2 million
Czech RepublicPrague78,866 km²10.7 million
DenmarkCopenhagen43,094 km²5.8 million
EstoniaTallinn45,226 km²1.3 million
FinlandHelsinki338,455 km²5.5 million
FranceParis547,030 km²65.4 million
GermanyBerlin357,168 km²83.9 million
GreeceAthens131,957 km²10.3 million
HungaryBudapest93,030 km²9.6 million
IcelandReykjavik103,000 km²343,353
IrelandDublin70,280 km²4.9 million
ItalyRome301,338 km²60.3 million
KosovoPrishtina10,887 km²1.9 million
LatviaRiga64,589 km²1.8 million
LiechtensteinVaduz160 km²38.25
LithuaniaVilnius65,300 km²2.6 million
LuxembourgLuxembourg2,586 km²634.814
MaltaValletta316 km²442.784
MoldovaChisinau33,846 km²4 million
MonacoMonaco2.020 km²39.511
MontenegroPodgorica13,812 km²628.053
NetherlandsAmsterdam41,543 km²17.1 million
North MacedoniaSkopje25,713 km²2 million
NorwayOslo385,203 km²5.4 million
PolandWarsaw312,685 km²37.7 million
PortugalLisbon92,212 km²10.1 million
RomaniaBucharest238,397 km²19.1 million
RussiaMoscow3,969,100 km²145.9 million
San MarinoSan Marino61.2 km²34.017
SerbiaBelgrade88,361 km²8.6 million
SlovakiaBratislava49,035 km²5.4 million
SloveniaLjubljana20,273 km²2 million
SpainMadrid505,990 km²46.7 million
SwedenStockholm450,295 km²10.1 million
SwitzerlandBern41,285 km²8.7 million
UkraineKyiv603,628 km²43.4 million
United KingdomLondon244,820 km²68.2 million
Vatican CityVatican City0.44 km²800

Transcontinental Countries in Europe

The following countries are geographically found in two continents: Europe and Asia:

CountryCapitalAreaPopulation (2021)
ArmeniaYerevan29,743 km²2.9 million
AzerbaijanBaku86,600 km²10.2 million
GeorgiaTbilisi69,700 km²10.7 million
KazakhstanNur-Sultan148,000 km²19 million
TurkeyAnkara23,764 km²85.4 million

Map of European Countries 

Languages Spoken in Europe 

There are more than 200 spoken languages in Europe, but the languages with the most speakers in Europe are the following: 

LanguageRegionNumber of speakers
RussianRussia150 million
Belarus
Estonia
Latvia
Lithuania
Moldova
Ukraine
GermanGermany95-100 million
Austria
Liechtenstein
Switzerland
Belgium
Luxembourg
FrenchFrance80 million
Belgium
Switzerland
Luxembourg
Aosta Valley (Italy)
Andorra
TurkishTurkey78 million
Cyprus
Macedonia
Greece
Serbia
Albania
Kosovo
ItalianItaly60 million
Switzerland
San Marino
Vatican City
EnglishThe UK60 million
Ireland
Spain
France
Germany
SpanishSpain43 million
Gibraltar
Andorra
France
Germany
Portugal
PolishPoland36 million
Czechia
Hungary
Belarus
Ukraine
UkrainianUkraine27 million
Russia
Poland
Romania
Latvia
Estonia
DutchNetherlands25 million

What Is the Official Language in Europe?

Europe, as a continent, does not have one official language, but each country in Europe has its national language. Some of the most widely spoken languages include Russian, French, German, and English.

Best Countries to Visit in Europe

Here are the most visited countries in Europe: 

  • France. With over 80 million visitors in 2019, France is the top destination for foreign travel. Home to the “city of love,” France is widely popular with tourists—especially as a proposal destination for couples. 
  • Spain. Spain is another popular destination with over 80 million visitors every year. The country has over 47 UNESCO sights that make up an attractive place for tourists. 
  • Italy. In Italy, you will have the opportunity to see some of the most famous landmarks, including the Colosseum. 
  • Germany. Germany is a European country that you must visit at least once while in Europe. It has several famous spots and some breathtaking green spaces. Plus, if your timing is right, you can experience several cultural festivals while in Germany. 
  • The United Kingdom. The UK is another European destination that sees the highest number of visitors every year. Between Big Ben and Stonehenge, you experience critical human history events when you visit the UK. 

Reminder: Before you visit any of these European countries, make sure you check whether you need a Schengen visa or not. 

Top European Tourist Attractions 

Rich with history, culture, and diversity Europe is home to some of the most top tourist attractions in the world, which include the following:

  • Eiffel Tower. Located in Paris, France, this historic landmark is one of the most famous buildings worldwide. With more than 250 million visitors since it was built, it’s one destination you must cross off your bucket list. The entrance fee for an adult to go up to the top is €26 ($29), but you can also pay a cheaper entrance fee to visit up the second floor. 
  • Neuschwanstein Castle. Known as the ‘fairytale’ castle, the Neuschwanstein was commissioned by King Ludwig II of Bavaria and finished in 1886—the same year the King died, who was unable to ever live in the completed castle. Nevertheless, the castle served as an inspiration to Disney castle, now worldwide famous. 
  • Lake Bled. This lake is found in Slovenia, and it surrounds the Bled island, wherein the center of the island the most prominent building is a church dedicated to the Assumption of Mary. As a result, the lake makes up for some fantastic views.
  • Saint Basil’s Cathedral. In Russia’s Red Square, you can come across one of the most colorful church buildings. Built between 1555 and 1561, the building is now a museum open to the public. 
  • Dubrovnik Old Town. Known as the “Pearl of the Adriatic,” Dubrovnik Old Town is one of the best-preserved medieval structures in the world. You’re transported back in time by visiting the old town and walking along its cobblestone streets and ancient walls. 
  • Canals of Venice. Cars are strictly forbidden in Venice. Because the entire city functions with canals, all forms of transportation are done by boats along the canals. If you want to visit the city, you must park your car for the day for a fee of €25 ($28).
  • Alhambra. Built in 1238, Alhambra is one of the few remaining architectural structures of Muslim influence in Spain. The name derives from Arabic ‘al-Hamra’, meaning “the red one.” The building got its name from its reddish walls, which resulted from construction with rammed earth. You can fully explore the building at the price of €14 ($16). 
  • Acropolis of Athens. Here, in Greece’s oldest city structures, you can find the Parthenon. As a former temple, it was built dedicated to the goddess Athena, who the locals considered their patroness. Now, you have the opportunity to visit one of the oldest symbols of democracy and Western civilization. 
  • Colosseum. The colosseum was built in 80 AD in the city of Rome and to this day is one of the largest amphitheaters in the world. Now, the building is one of the seven wonders in the world. 

What Is the European Union?

The European Union is a coalition between 27 member states in Europe, including the countries listed below: 

  • Austria
  • Belgium
  • Bulgaria
  • Croatia
  • Republic of Cyprus
  • Czech Republic
  • Denmark
  • Estonia
  • Finland
  • France
  • Germany
  • Greece
  • Hungary
  • Ireland
  • Italy
  • Latvia
  • Lithuania
  • Luxembourg
  • Malta
  • Netherlands 
  • Poland
  • Portugal
  • Romania
  • Slovakia
  • Slovenia
  • Spain 
  • Sweden

The EU was officially established in 1993 with the Maastricht Treaty. Since then, the EU has established a single internal market and standardized laws where each member state is considered one. 

What Is the Schengen Zone?

The Schengen Zone is a territorial organization made up of 26 European countries. The purpose of the Schengen agreement is to eliminate borders between member states and allow one visa for all foreign visitors who want to visit the EU. 

What Is the EEA (European Economic Area)?

The EEA is an agreement between the EU and three EFTA members (Liechtenstein, Iceland, and Norway) that extends the EU’s single market to these countries. However, the only exception to this agreement is Switzerland— an EFTA member— who continues to have separate bilateral agreements with the EU. 

Difference Between the EU and the Schengen Area

The European Union is more concerned with the single market and ensures the free movement of all EU citizens between the 27 countries. In contrast, the Schengen area provides foreign nationals with access to the member states upon meeting the criteria set by the Schengen countries.

The Republic of Ireland is the only European Union country that refused to sign the Schengen Agreement. On the other hand, EU members, Cyprus, Bulgaria, Romania, and Croatia — have not been admitted to the Schengen Area due to technical or internal issues.

All the differences between the European Union and the Schengen Area.

How to Get a Visa to Visit Europe?

To visit Europe, you need to apply for a Schengen visa. This visa allows you to visit any country in the Schengen Area (and outside of it) for 90 days within 180 days. Keep in mind that this visa is issued for tourism purposes, so you cannot work or do business while in Europe with a short-term Schengen visa. If you want to retire in a European country, you can check the list of EU countries that offer retirement visas and choose the country that you want to retire in.

Getting a Visa for Each European Country 

You can find detailed information on how to get a Schengen visa for every European country below: 

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